Use of Must have

Use of Must have

Deduction or inference (a conclusion based on evidence and reasoning:

  • Use of Must have: It is used to denote an opinion of an earlier past situation.

           Sub + must have + m.v.3 + obj.

  • The truck driver must have seen the child.
  • He was a novice at driving. He must have panicked when he saw the lorry and car moving in on both sides.  
  • The bus passengers must have escaped from the bus due to fire.
  • The company must have provided all facilities to their employees.
  • He must have gone abroad to earn money.
  • She must have apologized to her husband.

 “Must have” is used when we believe the action certainly happened. When action definitely takes place in the past:

  • It’s 9 o’clock. The teacher must have entered the class.
  • He must have gone to market by 6 in the evening.
  • She must have scored good marks in the exams.
  • He must have got a good job by now.
  • They must have reached home till now.
  • Did you see him here? No, I didn’t. He must have gone to Mumbai.
  • I didn’t find my cards. He must have stolen them.
  • I couldn’t pay my debt. He must have paid for it.
  • She didn’t get her salary last month. She must have left the job.
  • My elder brother must have done it by now. (by now means till now is used in an affirmative sentence)
  • He mustn’t have done it yet. (Yet is used in a negative sentence.)

  • Definite present possession form of something (must have something)
  • She must have the document along with her.
  • She must have something that is hidden by her.
  • Raju doesn’t live on rent. He must have a house.
  • I have seen her in a car several times. She must have a car.
  • You like pens. You must have a parker pen at home.
  • She doesn’t want to pay the bill. She must have money.
  • He must have a novel.
  • Mother always wants that her children must-have toys.


Complete the sentence with appropriate modal verbs

Must, must have, should, should have  

  1. His friend was beaten by goons. You………… saved him.
  2.  You are too late. You ……….. go by taxi.
  3. Where …….. we go to join English classes.  (seeking advice)
  4. You ……… get up early in the morning. 
  5. It’s 9 ‘clock. She ………………. reached school.
  6. You…………. consulted your family doctor before taking these medicines.
  7.  He didn’t come, he …………. been busy at work.
  8. You……… not……. (spend) money for drinking and eating daily. You don’t have enough money now.
  9. He needed to attend the seminar regarding the project. He………… (stuck) in work.
  10. The truck driver hit the child. He…………. (see) him.

Exercise II

Complete the sentences with listed modal verbs below.

Must, should, must have

  1. He reads a lot. He………. books.
  2. She knows how to speak English fluently. She………. (get) selected for an interview yesterday.
  3.  She………. be busy in work these days.
  4. We……….. respect our parents.
  5. You………. not tell a lie.
  6.  The peon has run the bell. We…….. attend the class now.
  7.  Every student………. know English. (compulsory)
  8.  Mother always wants that her children……….. all facilities.
  9. Dushyant goes to school on foot. His school is very far away. He……… a bicycle.
  10. One………. do one’s duty.

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